Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

FGM is a form of child abuse. It’s dangerous and a criminal offence in the UK.

It comprises of all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genital organs or any other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. FGM is most often carried out on young girls aged between infancy and 15 years old.

Find out more about the signs, symptoms and effects of female genital mutilation:


Honour Based Abuse (HBA)

Honour Based Abuse is a collection of practices, which are used to control behaviour within families or other social groups to protect perceived cultural and religious beliefs and/or honour.

Such violence can occur when perpetrators perceive that a relative has shamed the family and / or community by breaking their honour code.

For young victims it is a form of child abuse and a serious abuse of human rights.

It can be distinguished from other forms of violence, as it is often committed with some degree of approval and/or collusion from family and/or community members. Women, men and younger members of the family can all be involved in the abuse.

.Statistics on so called ‘honour-based’ abuse offences, England and Wales, 2020 to 2021


HBA practice guidance

Pan Cheshire Harmful Practices Strategy

Some organisations who offer advice and support if you’re being threatened or abused and they can also help if you’re concerned about someone else being abused.

Forced Marriage

Forced Marriage involving anyone under the age of 18 constitutes a form of child abuse. A child who is forced into marriage is likely to suffer Significant Harm through physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Forced marriage can have a negative impact on a child’s health and development, and can also result in sexual violence including rape. If a child is forced to marry, he or she may be taken abroad for an extended period of time which could amount to child abduction. In addition, a child in such a situation would be absent from school resulting in the loss of educational opportunities, and possibly also future employment opportunities. Even if the child is not taken abroad, they are likely to be taken out of school so as to ensure that they do not talk about their situation with their peers.


Forced Marriage – Pan Cheshire